Food as a means of restoring young football players
Food as a means of restoring young football players. Energy costs from football players.
The means of restoring the physical performance of a child are an integral process before and after training in a football school. Good nutrition is one of the most important factors for footballers to preserve health, improve performance and achieve high results. It must be built taking into account the climate of the city where the sports school is located, the stage of preparation and the individual characteristics of the child. In addition, food must meet certain hygienic requirements, that is:
match the energy costs of an athlete;
include all the necessary substances - proteins, fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts, balanced in the most correct proportions;
to be diverse and containing products, both animal and vegetable origin;
be easily digestible, appetizing in a child and possessing a pleasant taste, smell and appearance.
Nutrition balance provides qualitative and quantitative relationships of the main nutrients - proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, mineral salts and individual vitamins among themselves and with other components of food. For footballers in the daily ration, the following ratios are recommended (in terms of caloric content): proteins - 14%, fats - 22%, carbohydrates - 64%. A little about each of them:
Proteins are essential nutrients.
First of all, they are needed to build and permanently update various tissues and cells of the body. They are part of many hormones and due to this they are involved in metabolism. They are a necessary link for the normal exchange of other nutrients in the body (in particular, vitamins and mineral salts). With their deficiency, the activity of the central nervous system, the endocrine glands, the liver and other organs are disrupted, the protective reactions of the body are reduced, and efficiency is affected.
Of particular value are animal proteins contained in products of animal origin. Proteins of meat, fish, milk and eggs are characterized by the most favorable ratio of amino acids, which will ensure a high level of delay and reverse recovery of tissue proteins in the body. Therefore, animal proteins should be considered the main source of the qualitative balance of the diet for children in sports. In their diet at least 60% of the daily protein intake must necessarily be contained in animal products. Meat proteins are most favorably combined with potatoes and vegetables: a high concentration of protein in meat and a small percentage of protein in vegetables provide the optimal amino acid composition. The daily need of young football players in proteins is 2.3-2.4 g per 1 kg of body weight, but not more. For better digestion of proteins, when eating, combine dairy and meat products with cereals and cereals: buckwheat porridge with milk, bread with milk or yogurt, as well as milk porridges and cereal soups. Milk noodles, flour products with cottage cheese, dishes containing milk and cereals, flour products with meat, etc. Professional footballers have milk porridge - a must-have breakfast.
It is advisable to take the bulk of animal proteins before and after workouts; this improves the use of protein digestion products by working and resting muscles. For example, meat products, cheeses, cereal with milk - for breakfast and lunch; fish, cottage cheese - for dinner.
Fats perform diverse and complex physiological functions.
They are a source of energy: they give it 2.2 times more than carbohydrates and proteins and are actively involved in metabolism. With a low content or complete absence of fat in the diet, the functions of the central nervous system, kidneys, liver and skin are disturbed, growth is slowed down and weight is reduced. Football players' daily fat requirement is 1.8–1.9 g per 1 kg of body weight. The diet should contain 73-80% of animal fats (butter, sour cream, cheese), as well as 20-35% of fats of vegetable origin (vegetable oils).
Carbohydrates - the main sources of energy for the body are necessary for the normal functioning of the muscles, central nervous system, heart, liver.
Food carbohydrates are divided into simple and complex. Daily soccer players need in carbohydrates is 9.0-10.0 g per 1 kg of body weight. 64% of all carbohydrates consumed must be complex and 36% simple. Among the players, there is still a misconception that the use of a significant amount of sugar contributes to increased efficiency. Sugar is needed mainly to give a sweet taste to food, also in various sweet dishes. Sometimes you can use its ability to quickly be absorbed into the blood. So after a hard workout in the sports section for quick recovery it is recommended to take 50-100 g of sugar.
Carbohydrates can also be converted into fats that are deposited in the body. Therefore, young players who are inclined to corpulence should not abuse flour products, sweets and other easily digestible carbohydrates. In this case, a product that has easily digestible carbohydrates, is honey. It is recommended after intense workouts and competitions (as a rule, it is better at night, respectively, reducing the sugar content in the diet).
We must not forget about fiber, which is essential for the proper functioning of the digestive organs: it increases intestinal motility and contributes to its normal emptying. With an insufficient amount of fiber in the diet can occur digestive disorders and constipation. It is abundant in legumes, beets, cabbage, carrots, radish, prunes, as well as in wholemeal bread.
How to calculate the calorie and high-quality nutritional value of food? Energy consumption depends on individual characteristics (age, weight, height), level of metabolic processes and, mainly, on the volume and nature of training loads in the football section. During the period of training the athlete should receive daily with food on average 64-67 kcal per 1 kg of body weight. Depending on the training loads, daily energy consumption can vary from ± 8 to ± 26 kcal per 1 kg of weight.
The nutritional value of food in terms of energy can also be judged by the change in the “combat” weight of a small football player. With sufficient caloric content, it varies in small limits. The increase in weight as a result of excessive fat deposition indicates excessive nutrition, and a decrease indicates an insufficient one. The most high-calorie fats and cereals. Much lower calorie meat and fish. Even less - vegetables, fruits and herbs.
While ensuring the required caloric content of the daily ration of football players, it should also be borne in mind that the value of the usual portion of most soups is 200-300 kcal, dairy, cereal soups and assorted meat saltworms over 400 kcal. Many main dishes with a side dish have a caloric value of 500-600 kcal, fish - about 500 kcal, vegetable - 200-400 kcal (the caloric content of vegetable dishes depends largely on their fat content). A drink, for example, jelly or coffee with milk - is 100-150 kcal. The energy consumption of football players is significantly higher than that of athletes in a number of other sports. Accordingly, the need for proteins, fats and carbohydrates is higher.