Methodological principles of sports selection of participants
Methodological principles of sports selection of participants.
Before, the coach was not interested in the process of obtaining the recommendations that were proposed by scientists. Perhaps that is why scientific research found its way into practice with such difficulty. In modern conditions, when the scientific support of various aspects of training athletes is gaining increasing recognition, coaches are not without success penetrating the secrets of research technology.
Recently, the number of scientific works in the field of sports in general and selection in particular has sharply increased. Many of them are devoted to selection methods. The authors sometimes offer various techniques, based mainly on those aspects that they studied in depth. To select those who meet the views of the coach and, in his opinion, will ensure the reliability of the selection, he needs to have a fine understanding of how to obtain scientific information.
Based on the characteristics of sports activities, the entire selection system in sports and the criteria applied in it must meet certain methodological principles.
When deciding on the choice of sports specialization and admission to sports schools, the candidate is considered in the unity of his mental and somatic characteristics, paying attention to the level of development of qualities and properties that apply to all substructures of the personality and organism, regardless of their genetic or environmental nature. This predetermines the principle of a complex approach. Such an approach allows not only to obtain extensive information, but also to compare indicators relating to various spheres of life in terms of the possibility of forming special abilities.
In various sports, abilities are special, but they have a lot in common. From this point of view, athletic ability in general can be considered; abilities specific to a group of species, such as sports; abilities to this sport; abilities inherent in athletes of a certain role in this sport; abilities characteristic of a player of this role, possessing a certain playing style; finally, individual abilities. Such a pyramid, at the base of which there are athletic abilities in general, and at the summit — individual abilities, forces one to evaluate abilities at selection sequentially from bottom to top. The positive meaning of such a system lies in the implementation of the dialectic unity of the processes of determining fitness, sports orientation and sports selection. Therefore, we can formulate the principle of unity of suitability, orientation and selection.
Elimination in the selection due to unsuitability to this sport is associated with some contradiction of the interests of the child and the needs of the sport in which the selection is carried out. But this contradiction is intensified if the incapable is accepted and continues to study in a children's sports school. From this point of view, selection is a humane and socially justified event. He must take into account both the interests of sport and the interests of the individual. On this basis, it seems necessary to put forward the principle of unity of interests of sports and the interests of the individual.
Prediction in the selection process is based on the assessment of the state of qualities and personality traits during the selection period and their growth rates. However, the growth rates are so individual that they hardly claim to be the criterion. Orientation to the growth rate of sporting achievements is also ineffective, since the progress of achievements is also individual due to various biological and mental maturation. It seems appropriate to study the dynamics of success in teaching techniques and methods of action. In sports, this is reflected in the diagnostics of abilities for technical training, individual tactical actions and interaction. This principle can be called the principle of learning diagnostics. Justifying this principle, it should be pointed out that the implementation of technical methods and methods of action in model conditions depends less on random and confounding factors than a sports result, and is also provided mainly with stable and slightly compensated qualities.
Given the need for diagnosis in the selection of a very wide range of abilities, it is useful to proceed from the principle of consistency and selectivity. According to this principle, at first, conservative and low-compensated qualities are measured, then conservative, but compensated, and then labile and compensated. Such a sequence provides an earlier diagnosis of fitness for the sport. The selectivity is in the selection in a separate subsystem of those qualities and properties that most clearly distinguish the reference contingent of athletes in this form.
All information obtained in the process of studying the personality in the selection (background, heredity, social and other factors) should be used not only to conclude on fitness, but also in the interests of further education of an athlete, especially with the aim of individualizing training. Methods for diagnosing athletic abilities and methods for diagnosing learnability organically merge in the process of initial sports training. On this basis, the principle of unity of selection and education of athletes.
By the time of selection, not all abilities of children are equally pronounced. This is due primarily to the difference in their motor mode. This situation greatly reduces the effectiveness of diagnosis. Of course, it would be ideal if the volume and nature of the previous motor mode were similar for all candidates for the children's sports school. The unattainability of such an ideal is obvious, but it is possible to carry out preliminary preparations for the selection, which undoubtedly pays off with promptness and refinement of the forecasting during selection and orientation. Guided by the principle of preliminary preparation for the selection, schools should be organized according to the type of figure skating schools, or the primary school program should be focused on introducing special programs into physical education lessons aimed at developing abilities characteristic of groups of sports.
A number of authors point to the need to diagnose biological and psychological reliability during selection. Using the example of a number of sports games, it is easy to establish that some athletes are distinguished by a high level, while others are highly stable. But only thirdly, those who are strong in both components can be considered reliable. The value of the biological, mental and social aspects of reliability can hardly be minimized. Reliability is associated with approaches to the diagnosis of emotional stability, health, recovery processes, etc.