Nutrition for sportsmen
Nutrition for sportsmen.
Nutrition is a vital human need. Main The tasks of nutrition are to provide the human body with energy, plastic (building) substances and biologically active components. Any deviations from adequate supply of nutrients to the body can cause significant damage to health, lead to a decrease in resistance to adverse environmental factors, worsening mental and physical performance.
For athletes seeking to achieve high results, nutritional issues are of particular importance because nutrition and physical performance is not currently
Modern sport is characterized by intense physical, mental and emotional stress. The process of preparing for the competition includes usually two or even three daily training, leaving less time to rest and restore physical performance. Proper construction of the athlete's diet with the mandatory replenishment of energy costs and maintaining water balance of the body an important requirement in the organization of the training process. At the heart of the strategy nutrition of athletes are the general principles of healthy nutrition, however there are special tasks. They are to improve performance, distance time of onset of fatigue and acceleration of processes recovery after exercise. The ability to actively and rationally use nutritional factors at various stages of the training process for athletes, as well as directly during the competition, has always attracted the attention of specialists. However, it should be noted that, despite the importance
this issue for athletes, practical applications are often found by concepts that have no scientific substantiation, or the same theoretical construction, the validity of which is not confirmed by scientific research. Perhaps the discrepancies in the issue of nutrition of athletes associated with a limited number information addressed directly to the coach and athlete, based on a scientific rationale for the compliance of the nature and diet with changes in metabolism caused by muscular activities.
In 2000, through the mediation of the International Olympic Committee in collaboration with the International Federation Sports Medicine by Blackwell Science Ltd was Released Volume 7 of the Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine on nutrition in sports. Editor of the mentioned edition Professor Ronald J. Maughan invited to participate in the project more than 60 world-renowned specialists sports doctors, physiologists, nutritionists. Without any doubt, the competence and value of the information provided It is difficult to exaggerate, as well as the need to convey the modern views of leading foreign experts and to the Russian reader. Opinions and recommendations of these scientists are the basis of this methodological manual, which in essence its represents the analysis of literature data on issues nutrition in sports. Summarizing the recommendations of leading experts, this methodological guide serves the purpose of popularizing knowledge about the role of nutritional factors and the basic principles of building adequate diet athlete.
A certain knowledge base is needed to fully evaluate the information provided, which is fully justified. Without knowledge of the energy demands of physical activity, the role of the main energy substrates and ideas about substrates, limiting muscle activity, it is impossible to justify basic recommendations for nutrition in a particular sport.
The manual is constructed as follows:
The first section provides information that underlies practical recommendations on nutrition in sports (in the light of the effects of physical activity, the issues of macro- and micronutrients in nutrition, water balance of the body, function of the gastrointestinal tract are considered); the second section addresses some of the more private issues character (nutrition of young athletes, correction of body weight, questions of increasing physical performance by nutritional factors);
The third section is a detailed overview of specific issues related to catering before, during and after training competitions in various sports.
Special interest of athletes and coaches can attract exactly the third section of the manual, thanks to the specific requirements to the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of nutrition, which are presented depending on the characteristics of the metabolic processes caused by the sport.
Attention should be paid to great care with which to refer to any generalizations when it comes to about a specific athlete. It is necessary to take into account that, in addition to physical stress, athletes experience systematic neuro-emotional overload, especially pronounced during the period of preparation for the competitions and their holding. At competitions when performing the same work energy consumption of an athlete is about 26-29% higher than in training sessions. It should also be borne in mind that the volume and intensity of the load in different sports are evaluated in an averaged manner and in each case they vary.
The same can be said about the level of energy consumption of athletes, considering the literature data presented here as a whole as indicative.