The speed and features of its development in the theory of physical culture
The speed and features of its development in the theory of physical culture. Learn to run fast.
To characterize the physical qualities of an athlete, directly determining his speed abilities, the term “rapidity” was generally used. Quickness is a complex of morphofunctional properties of a person, directly determining the speed characteristics of movements, as well as the time of motor reactions.
In recent decades, the term "speed abilities" has been increasingly used. This is explained by the fact that studies of specific forms of the manifestation of speed reveal their significant differences.
Under the speed abilities understand the capabilities of a person, providing him the implementation of motor actions in the minimum time for these conditions. There are elementary and complex forms of manifestation of speed abilities. The elementary forms include the speed of reaction, the speed of a single movement, the frequency (pace) of movements.
All motor reactions performed by man are divided into two groups: simple and complex. The response to a previously known movement on a previously known signal (visual, auditory, tactile) is called a simple reaction. The speed of a simple reaction is determined by the so-called latent (hidden) reaction period - the time interval from the moment the signal appears until the moment it starts to move. Latent time in adults, as a rule, does not exceed 0.3 s.
Difficult motor reactions - a reaction to a moving object (ball) or a choice reaction, when from several possible actions it is required to instantly choose one that is adequate to a given situation (found in sports characterized by constant and sudden changes in the action situation (football). Most physical education and sport are reactions of “choice.” The time interval spent on performing a single movement (for example, hitting the ball) also characterizes speed abilities. The frequency, or pace, Visions are the number of movements per unit of time. In various types of motor activity, elementary forms of manifestation of speed abilities act in various combinations and in combination with other physical qualities and technical actions. In this case, there is a complex manifestation of speed abilities. holistic motor actions, the ability as quickly as possible to gain maximum speed and the ability to sustain it for a long time.
For the practice of physical education, the most important thing is the speed at which a person performs holistic motor actions in running, swimming, skiing, etc., and not the elementary forms of its manifestation. However, this speed only indirectly characterizes the speed of a person, since it is caused not only by the level of development of speed, but also by other factors, in particular the technique of owning action, coordination abilities, motivation, volitional qualities, etc.
The speed, manifested in the complete motor actions, is influenced by:
neuromuscular frequency the speed of the transition of muscles from the phase of tension to the phase of relaxation; the rate of alternation of these phases, the degree of inclusion in the process of movement of rapidly contracting muscle fibers and their synchronous work.
The ability to gain the maximum speed as quickly as possible is determined by the phase of starting acceleration or starting speed. On average, this time is 5-6 seconds. The ability to keep the achieved maximum speed for as long as possible is called speed endurance and is determined by distance speed.
In games, there is one more specific manifestation of speed qualities - rapidity of braking, when due to a change in the situation it is necessary to immediately stop and start moving in another direction.
The speed of movements is primarily caused by the corresponding activity of the cerebral cortex and the mobility of the nervous processes that cause contraction, tension and relaxation of muscles.
The manifestation of the forms of speed and speed of movement depends on a number of factors:
- conditions of the central nervous system and the human neuromuscular apparatus;
- morphological features of muscle tissue, its composition (ie, the ratio of fast and slow fibers);
- muscle strength;
- the ability of muscles to quickly move from a stressed state to a relaxed one;
energy reserves in the muscle (adenosine triphosphate acid - ATP and creatine phosphate - TFC);
- amplitudes of movements, i.e. on the degree of mobility in the joints;
- ability to coordinate movements during high-speed work;
- biological rhythm of the body;
- age and gender;
- high-speed natural abilities of man.
From a physiological point of view, the speed of the reaction depends on the speed of the following five phases:
the occurrence of excitation in the receptor (visual, auditory, tactile, etc.) involved in the perception of the signal;
transmission of arousal to the central nervous system;
the transfer of signaling information along the nerve pathways, its analysis and the formation of an efferent signal;
conducting the efferent signal from the central nervous system to the muscle;
excitation of the muscle and the appearance of an activity mechanism in it.
The maximum frequency of movements depends on the speed of transition of the motor nerve centers from the state of excitation to the state of inhibition and vice versa, i.e. it depends on the lability of the nervous processes.
The speed indicators in natural conditions depend on the acceleration developed, and it is determined by muscle strength, and body weight, or its links, lever length, total body length, etc.
Genetic studies (the twins method, comparison of the speed capabilities of parents and children, long-term observations of changes in the speed indicators of the same children) indicate that the motor abilities significantly depend on the factors of the genotype. According to scientific studies, the speed of a simple reaction by about 60–88% is determined by heredity. The average genetic influence is experienced by the speed of a single movement and the frequency of movements, and the speed shown in complete motor acts, running, depends approximately equally on the genotype and the environment (40-60%).
Speed abilities are very difficult to develop. The possibility of increasing speed in locomotor cyclical acts is very limited. In the process of sports training, an increase in the speed of movements is achieved not only by affecting the speed abilities proper, but also in a different way - through the training of strength and speed-power abilities, speed endurance, improvement of the technique of movements, etc. by improving the factors on which the manifestation of certain qualities of speed substantially depends. Numerous studies have shown that all of the above types of speed abilities are specific. The range of mutual transfer speeds is limited (for example, you can have a good response to the signal, but have a low frequency of movement; the ability to perform starting acceleration at high speed in sprint does not guarantee high distance speed and vice versa). Direct positive transfer of speed takes place only in movements that have similar semantic and programming sides, as well as motor composition. The noted specific features of speed abilities therefore require the use of appropriate training tools and methods for each of their varieties.
Methods of development of speed. The method of development of speed is based on the repetition of the effects of exercises performed with near-limit and maximum speed.
The main methods of development of speed include:
- repeat method;
- game method;
- competitive method.
The repetition method is the basis for the development of speed, since any exercise on speed requires multiple repetitions. There are the following types of repetitive method for the development of speed:
repeated exercises with near limiting speed;
repeated exercises with extreme speed;
repeated exercises with a speed exceeding the limiting (on the day of training) in lightened conditions;
repeated exercises in conditions that impede the manifestation of speed;
repeated exercises performed in lightweight and difficult conditions in one session.
The re-progressive method consists in the subsequent increase in volume in a series of repetitions (20-30-40m).
Game and competition are used in the form of various relays, mobile and sports games.
In the development of the speed of the motor reaction, the following techniques are used:
development of the ability to constantly keep an object in sight
practice a gradual increase in the surprise of the appearance of an object; reduce the distance between the student and the object; increase the speed of the object to develop the ability to predict the likely movement of an opponent.
Requirements for the development of speed:
1) The exercise should always be performed as fast as possible.
2) The duration of the exercise should be such that the speed does not decrease at the end of the repetition.
3) The optimal duration of a single load of 8-10 seconds. The number of repetitions is limited by the onset of a reduction in speed caused by increasing fatigue.
4) Rest intervals should be complete, try again without reducing speed
5) In the structure of one class, it is advisable to plan exercises for developing abilities at the beginning of a part after a good warm-up.
6) Within the weekly cycle, speed training should be conducted at least three times.
Powerful high-speed work causes various injuries (sprains, torn ligaments). In this regard, such loads are possible only after a general and special warm-up, including exercises for flexibility.
It should be noted that the speed and speed-power qualities must be developed in the supercompensation phase. While working on the development of speed, the duration of rest intervals should be determined by the heart rate - with a heart rate of 110-125 beats / min, you must begin the following exercise (repetition). During the performance of high-speed exercises (intensity 96-100%), the heart rate of athletes can reach significant values - 170-180 beats / min, and during the performance of speed-power exercises (intensity 95-100%) - up to 160 beats / min .
Means of development of speed abilities. Means of speed development are exercises performed with maximum or near-limit speed (ie, speed exercises). They can be divided into three main groups.
1. Exercises that target specific components of speed abilities: a) reaction speed; b) the speed of individual movements; c) improving the frequency of movements; d) improving the starting speed; e) speed endurance; e) the speed of performing sequential motor actions in general (for example, running, dribbling).
2. Exercises of complex (diversified) impact on all major components of speed abilities (for example, sports and outdoor games, relay races, etc.).
3. Exercises of conjugate impact: a) on speed and all other abilities (speed and power, speed and coordination, speed and endurance); b) on speed abilities and improvement of motor actions (in running, sports games, etc.). In sports practice, in order to develop the speed of individual movements, the same exercises are used as for the development of explosive power, but without or with a burden that does not reduce the speed of movement. In addition, such exercises are used that are performed on an incomplete scale, with maximum speed and with abrupt stopping of movements, as well as starts and spurts.
For the development of the frequency of movements are used: cyclical exercises in conditions conducive to increasing the pace of movements, running downhill.
The development of speed movements. The external manifestation of the speed of movement is expressed by the speed of motor acts and is always supported not only by speed, but also by other abilities (power, coordination, endurance, etc.).
The main means of educating the speed of movements are the exercises performed with the maximum or near-limit speed:
1) proper speed exercises;
2) general preparatory exercises;
3) specially preparatory exercises.
The speed exercises proper are characterized by a short duration (up to 15–20 s) and anaerobic elactate energy supply. They are performed with a small amount of external burdens or in the absence of them (since the external manifestations of the maxima of force and speed are inversely related).
As general preparatory exercises, the most widely used in physical education and sports are sprint exercises, jumping exercises, games with pronounced moments of acceleration (for example, basketball according to the usual and simplified rules, mini-football, etc.).
When choosing specially preparatory exercises with particular care should follow the rules of structural similarity. In most cases, they are “parts” or holistic forms of competitive exercises, transformed in such a way that it is possible to exceed the speed in relation to the competition achieved.
When used in order to foster speed of movement specifically preparatory exercises with weights, the weight of the weights should be in the range of up to 15-20% of the maximum. Holistic forms of competitive exercises are used as a means of training speed, mainly in sports with pronounced speed signs (sprint types). After achieving some success in the development of speed abilities, further improvement in results may not appear, despite the systematic nature of the classes. Such a delay in the growth of results is defined as the “speed barrier”. The reason for this phenomenon lies in the formation of sufficiently stable conditioned-reflex connections between the exercise technique and the efforts manifested in this process. To prevent this from happening, it is necessary to include exercises in which speed manifests itself in variable conditions, and to use the following methodological approaches and techniques.
1. Facilitation of external conditions and the use of additional forces, accelerating the movement.
The most common way to alleviate the conditions for the manifestation of speed in exercises, burdened by the weight of a sports projectile or equipment, reducing the magnitude of the burden, which allows you to perform movements with increased speed and in normal conditions.
2. The use of the effect of "accelerating aftereffect" and the variation of the burden.
The speed of movements may temporarily increase under the influence of the previous performance of movements with weights (for example, jumping with a load before a high jump, pushing a weighted core before a usual push, etc.). The mechanism of this effect lies in the residual excitation of the nerve centers, the preservation of the propulsion system and other trace processes that intensify subsequent motor actions. This can significantly reduce the time of movements, increase the degree of acceleration and the power of the work performed.
3. Leading and sensory activation of speed manifestations. The concept of “leading” covers well-known techniques (running after a partner leader, etc.).